Cryptocurrency and blockchain has been the hot topic in the media the past year. It is a concept that few truly understand, and could change the future for everyone in a major way.

But what is cryptocurrency and blockchain?

Per the online dictionary:

A cryptocurrency is a digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, operating independently of a central bank.

The most popular currently in the market is Bitcoin; others include Eutherian and Litecoin.  There are various platforms on which to trade in cryptocurrency, for example Luno. Luno functions like the JSE, where willing buyers and willing sellers transact in shares / cryptocurrencies.

Blockchain is a digital ledger in which transactions made in Bitcoin or another cryptocurrency are recorded chronologically and publicly.

An example to demontrate how blockchain works:

Pete wants to buy Bitcoin from Mary.  They both use Luno as platform to trade on.

By joining Luno, Pete and Mary effectively each receives a copy of the big overall “ledger” that shows where each unit of Bitcoin is at that point in time and where each unit of Bitcoin has been.

Each transaction is represented as a block. Each time a transaction is authorised, a block is then added to the other blocks already in place creating a chain, hence the term “blockchain technology”.

The chain is then compared between all the copies of the “ledgers” that are spread out over the world to validate them. You can actually add Bitcoin to your own account without actually purchasing any, but as soon as your ledger compares to the others around you, it will see the unauthorised transactions and reject your version.

Bitcoin is severly encrypted, therefore to be able to finalise a transaction, there are people in the market who solve very complex mathematical problems using a significant amount of expensive computing power to authorise the transaction. These people are called “miners”. They receive one Bitcoin for every transaction they finalise.

As soon as the transaction between Pete and Mary is authorised by the miner, the “ledger” is updated by adding another block to the chain.

The question that then arises is why would hackers not just hack and authorise transactions for themselves? This is where the magic of blockchain technology comes in – the computing power required to solve the complex problem is so expensive, that is more costly to hack than to rather just act as miners themselves and earn Bitcoin. Therefore, no one needs to trust each other and the technology allows the users to trust the system.

It is this level of technology that will regulate the future, effectively eliminating the need for lawyers and banks. The concept is throwing governments across the globe into a state of panic as there is currently no proper regulation inbedded in current tax laws.

Like Da Vinci’s inventions, the technology is a little ahead of its time and the rest of the world needs some time catching up. It is therefore critical to keep an eye on further developments as this will impact the way business is done in future.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied upon as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)




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IC Marais

Professional experience:

IC Marais is a certified CA (SA) with public sector and private sector technical knowledge based on 5 years’ Public Sector accounting, auditing and financial management experience and 5 years audit, tax and accounting experience. Detailed knowledge of private and public sector accounting and auditing standards (GRAP, IPSAS, IFRS, IAS, ISA) and public sector financial legislation (MFMA, etc.)

He enjoys the outdoors, hunting and fishing.


Professional experience:

In 1995, Schalk started as a trainee at Warner and Newton (which became Moores Rowland in 1997 and then Mazars Moores Rowland in 2007) in Bloemfontein. In 1998, Schalk was appointed as manager at Moores Rowland, where he became a partner in 2003. Schalk received his Postgraduate Certificate in Advanced Taxation in 2006 and in 2009 he received his Certificate in the Administration of Estates.


Professional experience:

Cedric started as a trainee at Warner and Newton (which became Moores Rowland in 1997 and Mazars Moores Rowland in 2007), Bloemfontein, in 1986. After completion of his articles, he joined the Special Investigations Division of the Department of Finance (SA Revenue Services) as a senior inspector from 1990 to 1991.


Professional experience:

Lucha started her career as a tax inspector at the Inland Revenue Department of New Zealand. After this she worked in commerce in Canada, Mexico and the United States.

On her return to South Africa, she completed her CA training contract with us and has been with Newtons ever since. She became a Partner in 2012.

Apart from her CA(SA) qualification she also holds a postgraduate certificate in Advanced Taxation (2005) and has the overall responsibility for training as our Training Officer.